5. History and Timeline of Japanese Acupuncture Law: Japanese acupuncture education and training

 

 

Comment
As the names of these laws and regulations only exist in Japanese, English translations have been provided to improve understanding.

 

1911

Regulation for the Control of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Businesses (Ordinance of the Ministry of Home Affairs No. 11, August 14, 1911)

Japanese laws regulating acupuncture and moxibustion have existed since the 8th century. However, the first modern national law on the regulation of acupuncture came into being in 1911. According to this law, a license must be obtained from the prefectural government in order to open an acupuncture or moxibustion business. To qualify for such a license, the applicant must pass an examination conducted by the prefectural governor or graduate from a school designated by the prefectural governor. Four years of acupuncture or moxibustion training with a qualified practitioner are required to qualify to sit for the prefectural government licensing examination.

 

1947 

Anma, Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Judo-Seifuku (etc.) Business Act (Act No. 217, December 20, 1947)

According to this law, a practitioner of acupuncture and/or moxibustion must hold a license as an acupuncture therapist and/or moxibustion therapist, unless that therapist is a doctor. Licenses are granted by the prefectural governor to graduates of accredited schools who have, in addition, passed an examination set by the prefectural governor. Four years of training at acupuncture school (or five at acupuncture and moxibustion school) is mandatory.

 

Ordinance for Enforcement of the Anma, Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Judo-Seifuku (etc.) Business Act (Ordinance of the Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 37, December 29, 1947)

The ordinance stipulates matters concerning acupuncture and moxibustion licensing, clinic facilities and equipment, notification to the prefectural governor of the start of practice, etc.

 

1948

Regulation for Certifying Schools that train Anma Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists, Moxibustion Therapists and Judo Therapists (Ordinance of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 1, April 7, 1948)

This ordinance stipulates the authorized requirements (curriculum, teachers, equipment, etc.) for acupuncture and moxibustion schools. The requirements for the combined education of acupuncture and moxibustion is a minimum five year program length, including 2,065 hours in 12 specialized subjects, 1,400 hours in practical training, and other subjects, totaling a minimum of 5,390 hours.

 

Ordinance for Enforcement of the Anma, Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Judo-Seifuku (etc.) Business Act (Ordinance of the Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 44, September 15, 1948)

This ordinance stipulates content of the written and practical licensing examination and clinic requirements, etc.

 

1951  

Regulation for Certifying Schools that train Anma Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists, Moxibustion Therapists and Judo Therapists (Ordinance of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 2, September 13, 1951)

The authorization requirements for schools are amended. Schools that teach both acupuncture and moxibustion therapy at the same time are authorized to reduce the minimum total number of class hours from 5,390 hours (specialized subject 3,465 hours) to 4,235 hours (specialized subject 2,660 hours).

 

1953

Act Partially Amending the Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists, Moxibustion Therapists and Judo Therapists Act and the Radiology Technicians Act (Act No. 3, January 20, 1953)

The minimum duration of study at acupuncture school is four years but, in the case of already holding a university entrance qualification, this is revised to a minimum of two years.

 

Ordinance on the Partial Revision of the Regulation for Certifying Schools that train Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists and Moxibustion Therapists (Ordinance of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 2, July 18, 1953)

School authorization requirements (e.g., duration of study, school hours, curriculum, etc.) are revised for students who hold a university entrance qualification. The authorization requirements of schools that provide combined acupuncture and moxibustion education is a minimum two-and-a-half year program, consisting of a minimum of 2,835 hours, including 1,750 hours in 12 specialized subjects, 910 hours in practical training and other subjects.

 

1988

Act Partially Amending the Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists and Moxibustion Therapists (etc.) Act (Act No. 71, May 31, 1988)

Granting of acupuncture licenses and administration of examinations is transferred from the prefectural governor to the Minister of Health and Welfare. A university entrance qualification and three years training at an accredited school are required in order to qualify to undertake the licensing examination.

 

1989

Ordinance on Partial Revision of the Regulation for Certifying Schools that train Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists and Moxibustion Therapists (Ordinance of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 4, September 29, 1989)

Based on the amendment to the Act (Act No. 71 of 1988), school authorization requirements are amended. The minimum number of class hours for combined acupuncture and moxibustion education is 2,835 hours, consisting of 1,005 hours in nine specialized fundamental subjects and 1260 hours in seven specialized subjects (including 840 hours of practical training).

 

1990    

Ordinance for the Enforcement of the Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists and Moxibustion Therapists (etc.) Act (Ordinance of the Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 19, March 29, 1990)

In accordance with the amendment to the law (Act No. 71 of 1988), all Ordinances for the Enforcement of the Act have been revised, including stipulation for licenses, licensing examinations, acupuncture clinics, etc.

 

1992

Ordinance on the Partial Revision of the Ordinance for the Enforcement of the Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists and Moxibustion Therapists (etc.) Act (Ordinance of the Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 52, September 24, 1992)

The practical examination is excluded from national licensing examinations, and only a written examination is required. The acupuncture licensing examination covers 13 subject areas.

 

2000

Ordinance on the Partial Revision of the Regulation for Certifying Schools that train Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists and Moxibustion Therapists (Ordinance of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 3, March 31, 2000)   

The curriculum setting subject areas and the number of hours to qualify for graduation are changed to a credit system, and curriculum, teacher qualification specifications, etc., are revised.

 

2017

Ordinance on the Partial Revision of the Regulation for Certifying Schools that train Anma, Massage and Shiatsu Therapists, Acupuncture Therapists and Moxibustion Therapists (Ordinance of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare No. 1, March 31, 2017)

Authorization requirements for school educational content, facilities, equipment, teacher qualifications, etc. are revised.

 

Educational Content of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Schools in Japan (2017)

 

Content credits
Introduction The basis of scientific thinking; Human life 14
Introduction to Specialized Field Structure and function of the human body 12
Origins of disease, prevention, and the promotion of recovery 12
Healthcare, welfare, and the philosophy of acupuncture and moxibustion 3
Specialized Field Foundations of acupuncture; Foundations of moxibustion 9
Clinical acupuncture; Clinical moxibustion 13
Acupuncture in modern society; Moxibustion in modern society 2
Practical training 15
Clinical practical training 4
Comprehensive fields 10
Total number of credits required for graduation 94

 

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